Symposium Spotlight: Matt Atkinson

Civil War historians and enthusiasts alike have always regarded the battle of Gettysburg and the Union victory there as a turning point of the war. Other campaigns and battles were happening at the same time, however. So what was the more important turning point of July 1863? This week’s symposium spotlight looks at very question with our first afternoon speaker on Saturday, August 4, 2018, Matt Atkinson.

The Gettysburg and Vicksburg Campaigns are seminal moments during the Civil War.  The two campaigns result in Union victories and set the Confederacy’s nationalistic hopes on a downward spiral.  Today, Gettysburg looms larger in the American psyche.  But which campaign had the greater impact in 1863?  Matt will explore this question and more as he looks at the importance of both campaigns.  

Matt Atkinson

Matt, who formerly worked at Vicksburg National Military Park, is a native of Mississippi—or as pronounced down south, “Missippi.” The Civil War has been his passion since he was five years old, and Matt says he considers himself lucky to make this a “living hobby.” In Matt’s private life, he enjoys living out ol’ country tunes.


Tickets for this year’s Symposium, Aug. 3-5, 2018, are available to order here. They include Friday night’s reception, speakers, keynote address, and historians’ roundtable; Saturday’s line-up of talks; coffee service and lunch on Saturday; and Sunday’s tour of Stonewall Jackson’s final days.

Gettysburg’s Famed Pickett’s Charge is Reimagined by Civil War Trust and Hirshhorn Museum

Check out this neat announcement from the Civil War Trust. In a different kind of preservation, preserving the memory of Pickett’s Charge, the Trust looks at a contemporary interpretation of the famed nineteenth-century  Gettysburg cyclorama. Keep reading to find out more about this project.

“Now on display in Washington, D.C.’s Hirshhorn Museum is internationally acclaimed artist Mark Bradford’s “Pickett’s Charge.” Bradford’s painting is a contemporary interpretation of French artist Paul Philippoteaux’s 1883 cyclorama at Gettysburg National Military Park, which the Civil War Trust recently brought to life in the painting’s first-ever, annotated, 360-degree video.”

Want more information on the 360-degree video? Click here.

Year In Review 2017: #6

Analysis of Civil War photographs and the era’s changing attitudes toward death are addressed in this informative and reflective blog post. Using some well-known photographs from Gettysburg battlefield, the author discusses the history surrounding the images.

It was the most-read blog post #6 in 2017: Alexander Gardner and the Good Death, by James Broomall, published on May 19, 2017.

Finding Evander McIvor Law

My short odyssey to find a Confederate general’s grave in central Florida led me to learn something about my current state of residence and military history. This is part biography of Evandor McIvor Law and part travel-post.



Evander Law

Born in Darlington, South Carolina on August 7, 1836 Evander McIver Law is best known for being a Confederate general. Hailing from a distinguished military family; his grandfather and two great-grandfathers had fought in the American Revolution with the famous Francis Marion, aka the “Swamp Fox.” Law was a graduate of the South Carolina Military Academy, known as the Citadel today, and had taught or helped found military schools after graduation

He was a history teacher before he played an active part in American military history. 

Law, who was residing in Alabama in 1861, joined the state’s militia but quickly embraced the Confederate cause, transferring into the Confederate States Army as a captain in the 4th Alabama Infantry. By May 1861 he was a lieutenant colonel. He first saw combat at First Manassas in Brigadier General Barnard Bee’s Brigade where he suffered a debilitating wound to his left arm. Upon his return to active duty, he rose to the rank of colonel in October 1861 and the following year, October 1862, he attained the rank of brigadier general.

Throughout 1862 he was present for every major campaign of the Confederate army in Virginia, having served in the corps commanded by General James Longstreet. Although initially praised by Longstreet, the relationship turned sour in late 1863, when the command of the wounded General John Bell Hood’s Division came to pass. Longstreet wanted to install Brigadier General Micah Jenkins, a favorite, although he had never served in the division. Law, who had held a command in the unit since its inception and had commanded it successfully when Hood was wounded both at Gettysburg in July 1863 and Chickamauga in September 1863, was the ranking brigadier.

This would simmer throughout the end of 1863 and into the new year. Law would be one of the general officers arrested and court-martialed by Longstreet in March 1864. Those charges were not sustained by the Confederate War Department upon their receipt though.

With his command still encamped in winter quarters in East Tennessee, Law tried to resign from the Confederate army and even journeyed to Richmond in person to request his resignation be accepted. This prompted Longstreet to issue his arrest, this time for insubordination. This was the final straw for Law’s Brigade, with the majority of the regimental leaders requesting a transfer of the command closer to home, which was Alabama. Although Longstreet, more out of spite, wanted to keep the command in Tennessee, which would have in a roundabout way given in to the officers wanting to stay closer to home, General Robert E. Lee recalled the command to Virginia to participate in what would become known as the Overland Campaign.

As his brigade fought through the horrific battles in the spring of 1864, Law was still under arrest and traveled in the rear of the army. When Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia sparred with General Ulysses S. Grant’s forces at the Battle of Cold Harbor in June 1864, Law had been placed back in command. During that engagement he received what looked like a serious wound when a bullet fractured his skull and damaged his left eye.

Upon his return to active duty, Law was transferred south and out of the infantry. He was given an assignment in the cavalry, in charge of a brigade attached to Major General Matthew Butler’s command. He would finish the war in that capacity, receiving a promotion to major general on March 20, 1865 that was never confirmed, however, by the Confederate Congress.

After the end of hostilities, Law would serve in various business ventures in both South Carolina and Alabama before heading to the Sunshine State; Florida in 1881.


That is where in September 2017, yours truly, went on a quest to find Evander McIvor Law.

Venturing out from Tampa, Florida, which had its own unique ties to the American Civil War, I took Interstate Four, which most people use to travel to Orlando, Disney World, and/or Daytona Beach. My destination was in Polk County, Exit 10 off the interstate. Eight miles to the southeast resides the town of Bartow, Florida.

Initially founded in 1851 as Fort Blount, the town was renamed Bartow in honor of Francis S. Bartow, who like Law, had fought at First Manassas but was killed in action there. He was the first brigade commander to die in battle during the Civil War.

When Law arrived in 1881, the town of Bartow was on the rise. The population swelled from 386 residents in 1880 to 1,983 twenty years later. Shortly after his arrival, on July 1, 1882 the town was incorporated as a city. Three years later a railroad connected the town on a north-south route and the following year, 1886, a spur connected it to the west to Tampa. This would prove to be an economic boom to the town when the Spanish-American War erupted in 1898. By the turn of the 20th century, Bartow was the most populated city south of Tampa on the Florida peninsula, boasting a bigger population than cities such as Miami and West Palm Beach!

South Florida Military College Building

South Florida Military College Building

Into this spiraling city, Law founded the South Florida Military College in 1895 and would be in charge of the institution until 1903. Two years later the college was shuttered due to the Buckman Act, which decreed that the Florida Board of Control had rights to govern the system of higher education. One of the tenets of the law was to consolidate places of higher learning from six to three. The South Florida Military Academy was merged into the University of the State of Florida; the precursor to the University of Florida. Yet, in its short existence, the school was known for its great scientific and technological courses and when the doors closed, part of its civil engineering material and equipment was requested by the University of the State of Florida.

Law continued in education, becoming a trustee of the Summerlin Institute in 1905. Named for Jacob Summerlin who had also served the Confederacy as a smuggler of goods through the Union blockade. The institute is now the only high school in Bartow, Florida. Law continued as a trustee until he became a member of the Polk County Board of Education in 1912, where he promoted public education in the state of Florida. Continuing to stay busy, he also edited the Bartow Courier Informant.

On October 31, 1920, Evander McIvor Law died in Bartow, Florida, due to paralysis for seven days with a contributing factor of senility. He was buried in Oak Hill Cemetery. A pension record, dated three years prior to his death, showed the continuing effects of his two Civil War wounds; his left arm was shrunken, still “practically useless”, the elbow was stiff, and the rotary motion of the forearm was gone. Furthermore, the head wound had severed the supraorbital nerves of the left eye and paralyzed the left frontal quarter of his scalp.


As I slowly drove Parker Street in Bartow, there was no sign for “Oak Hill Cemetery.” As I crept along at barely 5 miles-per-hour, I glanced to my left and saw a small stone and wooden fence situated across an open field. I turned into a broken-pavement turnout, parked the car, grabbed my camera, and traversed the field.

Oak Hill Cemetery, Bartow, Florida

I was the only one in the cemetery, where a few trees sprouted up around gravestones, some in complete disarray, others more cared for. No informational panel depicting where Law’s grave may reside was present. The graveyard seemed to be more a final resting place for Bartow and its residents to remember lost loved ones instead of a spot for travelers to stroll through to see Bartow’s past.

Approximately 100 yards into the cemetery, near a chain-link fence separating the cemetery from a row of houses, sits the iron cross depicting a Confederate veteran. Behind it, a stone marker, of decent size, reads the epitaph of Evander Law. His whole name not even spelled out on the gravestone, which he shares with his late wife, Jane. The tombstone does show is provisional rank of major general though.

Simple, yet appropriate. A man who did so much for Bartow, laid to rest among his adopted town and state, where he spent approximately forty years of his eighty-four year life. A man who dedicated a majority of his life to public education, interrupted by war, who did not even write an official report for his command on Gettysburg, laid to rest in a central Florida, in a small non-descript graveyard, with barely any notice to where his remains lay.


Yet, I had found him. And the journey to this city of central Florida helped educate me in a sense as well. There is a lot of American history in Florida, one just has to look for it. Most of it is off the beaten path. Thanks for the educational lesson Mr. Law.


Turning Point: Assault on Battery Wagner by the 54th Massachusetts


Around a small hamlet in southern Pennsylvania, Robert E. Lee’s vaunted Army of Northern Virginia was stymied and driven back after three days, July 1st through the 3rd, of bloodletting at the Battle of Gettysburg.

A turning point in the Civil War in retrospect.

On July 4, 1863, the Confederate bastion of Vicksburg, Mississippi, the “Gibraltar of the Mississippi River” capitulated to Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant.

A turning point in the Civil War in hindsight.

The evacuation of Tullahoma on the first day of July and the surrender of the last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River at Port Hudson, Louisiana on July 9, 1863, are two other significant actions in July.

Both can be considered turning points when studied through the lens of history.

Yet, there was a much more significant engagement, this time a Union defeat, that also turned the tide of the American Civil War. This assault took place on July 18, 1863 on Battery Wagner, part of the defenses of Charleston, South Carolina. In the waning moments of daylight, the 54th Massachusetts charged determinedly toward the sandy approaches and abates that was Battery Wagner. Their assault failed with the loss of their commander, Colonel Robert Gould Shaw. In this example though, the heroism of the charge, the courage that these soldiers portrayed, and what their actions meant advanced the Union war effort.  


Battery Wagner, photo taken in 1865 (courtesy of

The 54th Massachusetts Regiment was an African-American or in 19th century parlance, “colored regiment.” The brainchild of Massachusetts Governor John Andrews, the African-American soldiers that comprised this unit was fighting for their race, to thwart the misconceptions that blacks could only serve in labor and non-fighting positions, and to overthrow the Southern slave oligarchy and institute universal freedom.

Battery Wagner would be the pivot in which African-American soldiers showed their fighting prowess and their ability, like their fellow white soldiers, to uphold the standards of the American military. After the failed assault on July 18, 1963, the repercussions reverberated around the country. Including in the Confederacy.

“The negroes fought gallantly, and were headed by as brave a Colonel as ever lived,” wrote Lieutenant Iredell Jones of the 1st South Carolina about the 54th Massachusetts attack. Even the Charleston Courier’s editor grudgingly admitted that the African-American soldiers showed “bravery” although he wished it was “worthy of a better cause.”

In the North, descriptions such as “heroic conduct” from the Boston Transcript or “fought with the desperation of tigers” as the Cincinnati Daily Gazette wrote to their readership depicted the accounting of the 54th Massachusetts’ assault.

“The experiment has begun” wrote a newspaper reporter for the Washington Reporter a Pennsylvania-based publication. With the news of Battery Wagner, the 54th Massachusetts were “magnificent for their steadiness, impetuosity, and dauntless courage.” As a fitting epitaph, the reporter wrote that if all Union troops, irrespective of color of skin showed “as single hearted as these soldiers, our difficulties would disappear.


Currier & Ives Lithograph of the 54th Massachusetts charge on Battery Wagner (Courtesy of the Library of Congress

There were skeptics from the beginning of the “experiment” to arm and equip colored regiments and the fighting on July 18, 1863 did not completely dispel them. “Not myself a believer in the arming of negroes, free or contraband, as soldiers, I must do this regiment the credit of fighting bravely and well.” Other newspapers of the more Democratic Party persuasion, while still hesitant to embrace African-American soldier policy, admitted that the 54th Massachusetts and their bravery and courage under fire, made them “entitled to assert their rights to manhood,” and showed their “undaunted courage” and that they were “evidently made of good stuff.”To conclude the importance of the assault in July, an editor of the Chicago Tribune summed up the cause of African-American soldiers serving the Union war cause by writing;

                    “[The] government and the people have woke up to the importance of negro                              soldiers in the conduct of the war…[the] thing is now settled–the negroes will                          fight.”

The impact and fallout of the assault was noticed in the highest circles of the Federal government. The judge advocate general, Joseph Holt, in a letter to Secretary of War Edwin Stanton in August 1863, attested to;

                     “The tenacious and brilliant valor displayed by troops of this race has
sufficiently demonstrated to the President and to the country the character of
the service for which they are capable.”

Horace Greeley echoed the sentiment of how important that first test of combat was for the role and advancement of African-American soldiers in the war effort. Writing in 1865, he looked back on that summer two years prior, “It is not too much to say that if this Massachusetts Fifty-fourth had faltered when its trial came, two hundred thousand colored troops for whom it was a pioneer would have been put into the field.”

The eyes of the nation, from the president to the common citizen were on the black soldiers that courageously advanced in the surf and turf along the South Carolina barrier islands. If these men would have faltered, balked on the advance, let fear of death and destruction deter them, the cause of African-Americans would have been severely hampered.  Not only did they go in with gusto, but one of their number was awarded the Medal of Honor, for bringing the national flag back out of the conflict, never letting it touch the ground.


Medal of Honor winner William Harvey Carney of the 54th Massachusetts. He won the medal for his actions at Battery Wagner on July 18, 186

Before the end of the war over 179,000 African-American soldiers would don Union blue uniforms and help defeat the Confederacy and permanently end the “peculiar institution” of slavery and bondage. This number would constitute approximately 10% of the entire United States Army. Furthermore, another 19,000 African-Americans would serve in the United States Navy during the conflict. Over 40,000 would succumb to wounds or disease in defense of the Union and for the cause of freedom and liberty. In addition to aiding the Union war effort, the removal of African-American manpower affected the Confederate war effort, depriving them of manual labor; both in the military arena and on the home-front.

When one discusses the momentous month of July 1863 and the turning points of the American Civil War, the legacy of the 54th Massachusetts’s assault on Battery Wagner and what that created, must be part of the discussion. This batch of occurrences in the summer of 1863 turned the tide of the conflict and put the North on the footing to win the American Civil War.


*For an excellent study which was consulted as part of the research for this post, please consult, “Thunder at the Gates, The Black Civil War Regiments That Redeemed America” by Douglas R. Egerton*




Confederate Monuments in Massachusetts: Who knew? (Part 2)

Emerging Civil War welcomes back guest author Rob Wilson

Part 2 (Part 1 is available here.)

The story of how a memorial to Confederate soldiers landed on Martha’s Vineyard in 1925 actually begins in 1891. That’s when the Soldiers’ Memorial Fountain, topped by a zinc statue of a Union soldier, was erected in Oak Bluffs to honor members of the island’s chapter of the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), the preeminent organization for federal veterans of the Civil War. It is to that monument’s cast iron base that the tablet was affixed, among three existing plaques honoring GAR members. That plaque— declaring itself “In memory of the restored Union” and “in honor of the Confederate soldiers”— was installed with the support of the GAR’s surviving veterans and many other local citizens.

The fact that the Confederate plaque resides on a Union monument partly accounts for its acceptance. Yet there are deeper reasons it has avoided the kind of controversy that doomed the Fort Warren memorial, reasons contained in the remarkable and intertwined stories of Civil War veteran Charles Strahan and the monument. It was he who proposed and ultimately financed the statue. An Oak Bluffs resident for seven years at the time that memorial was dedicated, he had much in common with the federal veterans who enthusiastically backed his idea to erect a monument. Save one extraordinary difference: during the Civil War, this veteran fought for the Confederate States of America.[i]

Stranhan had been living in the loyal Union state of Maryland when the war started. A secessionist sympathizer, he joined the Maryland Guards, a militia unit with Confederate leanings that was absorbed into the 21st Virginia Infantry Regiment, Army of Northern Virginia. Wounded in the summer of 1862, at the Battle of Seven Pines, Strahan was discharged. Once recovered, he reportedly re-enlisted in the ANV and remained in service the rest of the war. By one record, he was a lieutenant on Maj. Gen. Isaac Trimble’s staff at Gettysburg.

An early 20th Century postcard portrays a Union infantryman atop the Soldiers’ Memorial Fountain watching over a crowd of summertime visitors to Oak Bluffs. Library of Congress

Nearly 20 years after the war ended, the veteran moved with his family to Oak Bluffs, bought the town’s newspaper and renamed it the Herald. Eventually accepted by most of his new neighbors, Strahan’s outreach efforts to GAR members were unsuccessful. However, he persisted and, after years, his attempts to connect won over several federal veterans. One of those men wrote a letter-to-the-editor at the Herald, pressing his comrades to accept “a certain long-ago Confederate officer (now a worthy, law-abiding resident of our Island city).”

The proposal to build the monument followed, the publisher offering to cover its costs by donating part of his paper’s subscription fees. The GAR’s Henry Clay Wade Post subsequently invited him to speak at a Memorial Day ceremony. The Union veteran introducing Strahan asserted that “[he] has proven his loyalty to Martha’s Vineyard, and especially his loyalty to our Post…” Asked to speak, the one-time Confederate soldier shared his feeling that “the mists of prejudice which have hung like a cloud over me, in this, my adopted home, are fast disappearing under the sunlight of your affectionate and brotherly hearts.”[ii]

As the monument project approached conclusion, the expatriate southerner reportedly donated $500 of his personal savings towards a shortfall in its budget. At the monument’s dedication, on August 13, 1891, Strahan’s five-year-old daughter pulled off the American flag shrouding the statue. Speaking to a large and enthusiastic crowd, the veteran reportedly “gave thanks for the abolition of slavery,” a remarkable public statement for a white southerner to make in the post-reconstruction era. He also shared his vision of a reunited nation: “That this comes from one who once wore gray I trust will add significance to the fact that we are once more a union of Americans, a union which endears with equal honor… that Massachusetts and South Carolina are again brothers; that there is no North nor South, no East nor West, but one undivided, indivisible Union.”[iii]

Three of the plaques on the monument’s base honor Union soldiers. The tablet above also acknowledges the Confederate roots of its chief patron. Photo courtesy of Tom Hodgson, thetompostpile

A time after the dedication, Strahan wrote of a dream he had for the monument’s future. Paraphrasing words Stonewall Jackson uttered on his death bed, the one-time Confederate soldier shared his hope that the island’s federal veterans someday might place on the statue “a token of respect to their old foes in the field, who have passed over to the other side of the river and are resting under the trees.”[iv]

Thirty four years later, in 1925, the Vineyard GAR’s few surviving members banded together to honor Strahan’s wish. A new plaque was affixed to the monument’s base and unveiled at a well-attended ceremony. “THE CHASM IS CLOSED,’” it reads, declaring: “IN MEMORY OF THE RESTORED UNION THIS TABLET IS DEDICATED BY UNION VETERANS OF THE CIVIL WAR AND PATRIOTIC CITIZENS OF MARTHA’S VINEYARD IN HONOR OF THE CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS.”

Eighty-six and frail, Strahan was unable to attend the ceremony. A dedication speaker noted his absence, remarking in her speech that the time had come to honor “our ex-Confederate soldier.”[v]

The plaque honoring Confederate soldiers. Photo: The Faculty Lounge

Fast forward to last August, just after Charlottesville’s monument-related violence. Contrasting the Soldiers’ Memorial Fountain to the controversial statue in that southern city, an editorial in the Martha’s Vineyard Gazette posited the island memorial expressed “an aspiration that is as urgent today as it was when it was unveiled in 1891: to heal a nation’s deep divisions.” The monument‘s message, the editor continued, “couldn’t be more different than that of the Confederate statues [that symbolized] resistance to efforts to end Jim Crow laws and other forms of racism.”[vi]

Not all Gazette readers agreed. Some letters-to-the-editor at the Gazette and the Martha’s Vineyard Times were critical of the plaque, asserting a recognition of Confederate soldiers had no place in Oak Bluffs, given its black heritage. Several letters linked the monument to the reconciliation movement. This post-Reconstruction school of thought, common in both North and the South, ignored vital details of the Civil War, such as the triumph of emancipation and the horrors of slavery, instead focusing on themes such as loyalty to one’s cause, heroism, and North-South reconciliation.[vii]

The monument’s interpretative plaque, installed at ground level at the monument site, encapsulates its history, and references the 1891 monument dedication speech where Charles Strahan “professed his dedication to the Union and gave thanks for the abolition of slavery.” Photo: Tom Hodgson

Defenders of Charles Strahan and his Soldiers’ Memorial Fountain responded, both on line and on blogs, some noting that the southerner had publicly given thanks for slavery’s abolition and that symbols and code words for the Confederacy and the Lost Cause are absent on the tablet. The monument, one wrote, embodied the unity and healing Lincoln intended when he spoke of binding the nation’s wounds in his Second Inaugural speech. Another interpreted the monument project as part of a Strahan’s “lifelong effort to mend” a heart wounded by war, and a sincere declaration of loyalty to a Union restored.[viii]

Despite the heartfelt criticisms, the monument debate appears to have ebbed. For example, there were no monumental arguments among the audience members crowded into the Martha’s Vineyard Museum for a late August program that examined the history of the Soldiers’ Memorial Fountain and discussed how it fit into the national monument debates. Called in October, the office manager in the Oak Bluffs Town Administrator’s Office reported only one complaint about the plaque to the town. But the island resident who had scheduled time on the Selectman’s September meeting agenda to propose removal of the memorial, subsequently canceled his appearance.

The 1938 dedication of the Eternal Light Peace Memorial. An estimated 250,000 people— including 1,800 Civil War veterans from both sides in the struggle— crowded at Gettysburg that day. Photo: National Park Service

The critics of the Soldiers’ Memorial Fountain and its tribute to Confederate soldiers are not likely to go away. Nor will those who have been moved by the story of Charles Strahan, a man who once served the Confederacy, settled on the Vineyard and embraced island life, launched a successful campaign to close the chasm that separated him from Union veterans, inspired a monument to a reunified Union and gave thanks for slavery’s abolition. They might compare the Vineyard’s little-known monument to the famous Eternal Light Peace Memorial in Gettysburg, commemorating the 75th anniversary of the battle. Dedicated on July 3, 1938, that towering structure also honors the soldiers of North and South and celebrates a reunited nation.[ix]

As he dedicated the monument, speaking to a Gettysburg audience estimated at a quarter million, President Franklin D. Roosevelt expounded the very themes Strahan had enunciated at his monument’s 1891 unveiling.

“All of them we honor,” FDR said of the veterans of the Civil War, his words broadcast on national radio. “[Not] asking under which Flag they fought then thankful that they stand together under one Flag now.”[x]

Thanks to Tom Hodgson, a Martha’s Vineyard resident and a descendent of Charles Strahan, for providing information and photographs for this series of posts. To view a piece he posted on his blog about the Soldiers’ Memorial Fountain, go to


[i]  Tom Dunlop, “Uniting the Divided: A Civil War monument in Oak Bluffs honors both Confederate and Union soldiers,Martha’s Vineyard Magazine, 8/2013,  Accessed 8/18/2017.

[ii] Martha M. Boltz, “Peacemaking long after last shot,” Washington Times, 8/22/2005,  Accessed 9/2/2017;

Tom Dunlop, “Uniting the Divided: A Civil War monument in Oak Bluffs honors both Confederate and Union soldiers.

[iii] Quotation taken directly from the Soldiers’ Memorial Fountain Plaque; Dunlop, “Uniting the Divided;” Boltz, “Peacemaking long after last shot.”

[iv]  Dunlop, “Uniting the Divided”

[v]   Boltz, “Peacemaking long after last shot”

[vi]  Martha’s Vineyard Gazette, Editorial Page, 8/17/17

[vii]  Ibid.; David W. Blight, Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American History (Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass., 2001), 4, 9-11.; Brian Matthew Jordan, Marching Home: Union Veterans and Their Unending Civil War, (Liveright Publishing, New York, 2014), 88-90, 104.

[viii]  Martha’s Vineyard Gazette, 8/17/17

[ix]  Steve A. Hawks,” Eternal Light Peace Memorial,” 2017, Gettysburg/Monuments,

[x] Franklin D. Roosevelt, “Speech of the President: Gettysburg, July 3, 1938,” Civil War Trust, .